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Regarding the first two constraints that physics places on any reality model of the universe (section 1.1):

A particle moves in discrete steps, and a particle’s state changes in discrete steps.

This a natural consequence of the computing-element reality model, given the finite size of the computing element, and given the finite resources of the computing element. These finite resources include such things as a finite processing speed, a finite memory, and a finite register size.

Computing an infinity of different positions, or an infinity of different states, requires an infinity of time when the processing speed is finite. Thus, in the computing-element reality model, nothing is computed to an infinite extent. Everything is finite and discrete.

Self-existing particles—that have a reality independent of everything else—do not exist.

This is a natural consequence of the computing-element reality model, given that particles, being data, cannot exist apart from the interconnected computing elements that both store and manipulate that data.

A particle in the computing-element reality model exists only as a block of information stored as data in the memory of a computing element. The particle’s state information—which includes at least the current values of that particle’s attributes—occupies part of the information block for that particle. Assume that the information block has a field that identifies the particle’s type.

For a computing element holding a particle, i.e., holding an information block that represents a particle, additional information is stored in the computing element’s memory as needed. For example, such additional information may include from which neighboring computing element that information block was received or copied.

For a computing element holding a particle, that computing element can run that part of its program that determines how that particle will interact with the surrounding information environment found in neighboring computing elements. This surrounding information environment can be determined by exchanging messages with those neighboring computing elements. Information of interest could include the type of particles those neighboring computing elements are holding, along with relevant particle state information. The actual size of the neighborhood examined by a computing element depends on the type of particle it is holding and/or that particle’s state information.

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