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Regarding out-of-body experiences, many good accounts have been written in Europe and America. Many people have had isolated out-of-body experiences, and some of these experiences have been collected and published by researchers. However, there are also books written by individuals who have had many out-of-body experiences, without the aid of meditation, drugs, or other means; such people are called projectionists, because they are self-aware while projected away from their bodies—and they remember their experiences long enough to record them.
In 1920, the personal account of Hugh Calloway—who used the pseudonym Oliver Fox—was published in a British journal. About two decades later he wrote the book Astral Projection, which recounted his experiences more fully. Fox was a lucid dreamer.
Fox had his first lucid dream at the age of 16, in 1902. He dreamed he was standing outside his home. In the dream, the nearby ocean was visible, along with trees and nearby buildings; and Fox walked toward his home, and looked down at the stone-covered walkway. Although similar, the walkway in the dream was not identical in appearance to the real-life walkway that it imitated. During the dream, Fox noticed this difference and wondered about it. The explanation that he was dreaming occurred to him, and at that point he became self-aware. His dream ended shortly afterward.
After that first lucid dream, lucid dreaming became a frequent occurrence for Fox. He would be asleep and dreaming, and at some point he would become conscious within the dream. Fox noted two interesting things about his lucid dreams: he could move about within the dream, such as by gliding across an apparent surface; and the substance that formed the objects in the dream could be molded by thought.
Fox’s lucid dreams were typically short, and he did his best to prolong them. But he would feel a pain in his dream-head, and this pain signaled the need to return to his body. As this initially weak pain grew, he then experienced a dual perception consisting of his dream sensations and his body’s sensations. A sort of tug-of-war resulted, with the body winning.
Unlike Fox, most lucid dreamers never report having a choice about returning to their body, because at some point the lucid dream just ends without any warning, and the dreamer awakes. Presumably in Fox’s case, the perceptions he felt of his physical body were communicated by bions still in his brain, to bions in his mind-piece, using the learned-program send and receive statements. Similarly, communications from the mind-piece to the bions still in the brain can ultimately affect the body, as demonstrated by sleep-lab experiments in which the physical body can show various movements and other responses that correlate with events in the lucid dream.
Fox had wondered what would happen if he resisted the warning-pain signal and delayed the return to his body. He decided to experiment. About a year after his first lucid dream, he became self-aware in another of his walk-around-the-town dreams. He felt the warning pain and ignored it. The dual perception occurred, and he successfully willed to retain the dream perception. Next, the growing pain in his dream-head peaked and then disappeared. At that point Fox was free to continue his lucid dream.
As Fox’s lucid dream continued, he soon wanted to awake, but nothing happened; his lucid dream continued. Fox then became fearful, and tried to concentrate on returning to his body. Suddenly, he was back in his body, but he found himself paralyzed. His bodily senses were working, but he was unable to make any movements. Fortunately, this condition did not last long, and he was soon able to move again. However, immediately afterward he was queasy, and he felt sick for three days. This experience deterred him for a while, but a few weeks later he again ignored the warning-pain during a lucid dream, and the same pattern resulted. He says the sickness was less this time, and the memory of the dream was lost. After this second experience, Fox no longer fought against the signal to return.
Fox remarks that years later he learned that if he had only relaxed and fallen asleep when he was paralyzed in his body, then the subsequent sickness would not have occurred.
If the mind-piece is away from the brain for too long, then that mind-piece probably needs some time to restore to their normal condition and performance levels those brain neurons that it normally inhabits. Hurrying this restoration process, and possibly ending it prematurely, may explain the sickness Fox experienced.
During his teens and twenties, Fox continued to have lucid dreams, and he noticed a pattern. Often, his lucid dreams never reached the warning-pain stage, because he would do something that would cut the dream short and cause him to awake. Fox gives some examples of what he means: After ordering a meal in a restaurant and then eating it, trying to taste the food he was eating caused him to awake. While watching a play in a theater, a growing interest in the play would cause him to awake. If Fox encountered an attractive woman, he could converse with her, but when he thought of an embrace or such, he would awake. In general, to prolong a lucid dream, “I may look, but I must not get too interested—let alone touch!”
Because the mind-piece of a lucid dreamer is not the complete mind available to that person when awake, when the lucid dreamer tries to think or act in a way that requires at least partial involvement of the remainder of his mind left behind with the brain, the end result is that the mind-piece returns to the body and rejoins with that remainder, so as to form the complete mind needed to do whatever it was that the lucid dreamer was trying to do.
Sight and hearing are the two senses of the lucid dreamer that work as well in the lucid dream as they do in the body. The typical lucid dreamer sees clearly in color, and can hear and talk by means of telepathic communication—although conversation during a lucid dream is typically infrequent. In contrast to sight and hearing, the other senses are noticeably absent. The lucid dreamer has no sense of taste, touch, or smell. And any attempt to use these senses during a lucid dream causes an automatic rejoining of the split mind.
In addition, apparently absent from the mind-piece is the ability to understand writing. For example, Fox remarks that he always had trouble reading whatever writing he encountered. He could see the writing, and he knew it was writing, but he could not read it—except occasionally and with difficulty. According to Fox, other people told him that they had this same inability to read lucid-dream writing.
Instead of being an idle spectator watching the world go by, the lucid dreamer is frequently in motion. He may be moving slowly by walking or floating, or moving more quickly by flying. However, the most spectacular motion for the lucid dreamer is a sudden acceleration to a great speed. At first, the lucid dreamer may be at a relative standstill, or flying, when this sudden acceleration begins. As the acceleration quickly builds, the sight goes black, and there may be a loss of consciousness. The next thing the lucid dreamer is aware of, is a change in the location of the dream. Apparently, the sudden acceleration happens when a large distance has to be traveled.
The lucid-dream literature has many lucid-dream stories in which transcontinental and transoceanic distances are quickly traveled by the lucid dreamer. Thus, there is reason to believe that the projected mind-piece can quickly accelerate to a speed of roughly several hundred kilometers per second. In general, for any movement of the mind-piece, the motive power of that mind-piece is the learned-program move statement, used by the intelligent particles composing that mind-piece.
Although the motion of the lucid dreamer is an impressive clue that there is an external dream world, additional evidence comes from encounters with persons known to the lucid dreamer. These dream encounters are sometimes independently confirmed when the awakened dreamer later talks with the encountered persons. For example, Fox tells the following story: He was discussing dreams with two friends. The three of them then agreed to meet together that night in their dreams. Fox remembered meeting only one friend in a dream that night. The next day the three friends compared experiences. The friend whom Fox met in the dream also recalled meeting Fox. Both Fox and this friend agreed they never saw the third friend, who claimed to have no memory of his dreams that night.
The experience that most convinced Fox that there is an external dream world, involved a girlfriend of his, when he was 19, in the summer of 1905. Fox had talked about his lucid-dream experiences with her, but her attitude was that such things were wicked. Fox tried to overcome her objections by claiming that she was ignorant and he could teach her. However, her reaction was that she already knew about such things, and could appear in his room at night if she wanted to. He doubted her claim, and she became determined to prove it. That night, Fox had what he calls a False Awakening—where he becomes self-aware, very close to his body, having both his lucid-dream vision and lucid-dream hearing. While he was in this condition, his girlfriend made a sudden, dazzling appearance in his bedroom. She appeared fully formed, wearing a nightdress. She said nothing, but looked about the room. After a while, Fox tried to speak to her, but she disappeared, and Fox awoke.
The following day, Fox met with his girlfriend to compare experiences. She greeted him enthusiastically with the news of her success. Without having been in his room before, she successfully described both its appearance and content. The description was sufficiently detailed to convince Fox of the reality of her visit. Fox remarks that his girlfriend said his eyes were open during the visit.
In describing his projections, Fox often shows an apparent confusion between dream-world objects and physical objects. For example, he seems to think his girlfriend saw his physical bedroom, and that is why he makes the remark about her saying that she saw his eyes open during the visit. He is quite sure that his physical eyes were closed. He finally concludes that she probably saw the open eyes of his dream appearance.
It seems to be a rule that the things seen during a lucid dream are objects composed of d-common particles. When Fox’s girlfriend visited his room that night, she was having a lucid dream; and she saw a d-common replica of his room, which occupied the same space as his physical room.
In a lucid dream, d-common objects often duplicate the shape and coloring of physical objects. For example, the appearances of other people seen during a lucid dream are typically imitations of the physical appearances of those persons. When Fox’s girlfriend made her appearance that night, probably the only thing in that room that was her was her mind-piece. If Fox had seen only the real her that was present, he probably would have seen a small “cloud” of particles, which he would have never recognized as his girlfriend.
A valid question is what causes d-common particles to assume shapes and colorings that imitate physical objects? Probably what shaped, colored, and clothed Fox’s girlfriend during her visit, was her mind-piece. Specifically, the bions of her mind-piece constructed out of d-common particles the appearance that Fox saw. The observed replica room was probably part of a larger replica house or building. Probably these replicas are constructed by the bions of those persons who are associated with the physical objects in question. The replica of Fox’s room was probably done by Fox himself, unconsciously.
Fox mentions the existence in the lucid-dream world of an entire city—an imitation London which he visited and explored. By analogy with Fox’s replica room, which shared the same space as his physical room, the imitation London which Fox visited probably shared the same space as the physical London. Besides imitation buildings that looked familiar, there were also buildings and monuments that Fox knew had no equivalent in the real city of London. Fox says that it was his experience that his repeated lucid-dream trips to the same town or city showed the same buildings and monuments—including those that had no counterpart in the real town or city.
Once made, a d-common object seems to remain in the same location, and retain its form—until intelligent particles move, change, or destroy it. Although the actual manipulation of d-common particles is normally done unconsciously, sometimes a lucid dreamer can consciously will a change in some nearby d-common object and see the change happen.
In spite of an often similar appearance and location, there is no linkage between d-common objects and p-common objects. For example, an experiment that is often reported by lucid dreamers is that they successfully move some d-common object that they think corresponds to a familiar physical object; but once they are awake and check the physical object, they always find it unmoved.
Fox remarks how the memories of his lucid-dream projections were fleeting. To counter this, he would often write down an account of his projection as soon as he was awake. In his book, Fox wonders why such memories are not more permanent. Of course, for most people the memory of ordinary dreams is very fleeting, too. Occasionally a projection or dream makes an impression on long-term memory, but that is the exception not the rule. It seems that the learned programs that manage the mind’s memory, when deciding long-term retention, assign a comparatively low priority to both dreams and lucid dreams.
 Fox, Oliver. Astral Projection. Citadel Press, Secaucus, 1980.
 LaBerge, Stephen. Lucid Dreaming. Ballantine Books, New York, 1987. pp. 82–95.
 Fox, op. cit., p. 44.
 Regarding the perceived shape and coloring of d-common objects, these conscious perceptions are perceptions of mental constructions that were made by the relevant learned programs concerned with vision; these learned programs process the sensory data for the d-common objects being seen. This is the same situation as with ordinary waking sight and p-common objects. In both cases, one consciously sees only a mental construction of what is there.
Given that d-common particles do not interact with p-common particles, this means that the sensory data used to construct the perceptions of d-common objects is different than the sensory data used to construct the perceptions of p-common objects. More specifically, photons (composing visible light) are p-common particles, and are not involved in the perception of d-common objects.