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This glossary defines two different reality models, namely the mathematics-only reality model and the computing-element reality model. For the computing-element reality model, elementary particles exist as blocks of information, and are either common particles or intelligent particles. For common particles, there are at least two classes: p-common particles and d-common particles. For intelligent particles, there are two types: bions and solitons.


An intelligent particle that has no associated awareness. Each cell is inhabited and controlled by a bion. Each adult man or woman has a cooperating population of roughly 50 trillion bions—assuming one bion per cell. The bions of the brain collectively form the mind, and the mind is guided by a soliton.

common particle

A particle that has relatively simple state information, consisting only of attribute values. This simplicity allows the interactions between common particles to be expressed with mathematical equations. Prime examples of common particles are electrons, photons, and quarks.

computing-element reality model

The computing-element reality model states that the universe’s particles are controlled by computers. Specifically, the computing-element reality model states that the universe is a vast, space-filling, three-dimensional array of tiny, identical, computing elements.

A computing element is a self-contained computer, with its own memory. Each computing element is connected to other computing elements, and each computing element runs its own copy of the same large and complex program—called the computing-element program.

Each elementary particle in the universe exists only as a block of information that is stored as data in the memory of a computing element. Thus, all particles are both manipulated as data and moved about as data by these computing elements. Consequently, the reality that people experience is a computer-generated virtual reality.

d-common particles

The common particles observed during a lucid-dream out-of-body experience. These d-common particles do not interact with p-common particles.

intelligent particle

A particle whose complex state information typically includes learned programs, and data used by those learned programs. In general, because of this complexity, it is not possible to express with mathematical equations the interactions involving intelligent particles.

mathematics-only reality model

The mathematics-only reality model is, at the end of the 20th century, the reality model of science. This is a very restrictive reality model that rejects as impossible any particle whose interactions cannot be described with mathematical equations. Because the equations of physics can be computed, everything allowed by the mathematics-only reality model is also allowed by the computing-element reality model.

p-common particles

The common particles of physics. Specifically, the electrons, quarks, photons, and other elementary particles of physics.


An intelligent particle that has an associated awareness. Each person has a single soliton. This soliton is the location of the separate, solitary awareness that each person experiences. The soliton in each person interacts with the bions of the brain that collectively form the mind.

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